Shchedrin Silvestr F. (1791-1830)

Live realistic quest and a new lyrical perception of nature is most clearly reflected in the landscapes of Sylvester Feodosievich Shchedrin.Since childhood, the life of Sylvester was closely associated with the arts. The artist's father, the sculptor Feodosy Fedorovich Shchedrin, he held the position of Professor and then rector of the St. Petersburg Academy of arts. The boy profession a decisive influence of his uncle, the famous painter, Professor Semyon Fyodorovich Shchedrin, who led the Academy landscape class. In 1800, he entered the Academy of fine arts, where his teachers were M. M. Ivanov, F., Alekseyev, and Thomas de Thomon. One of the first early landscapes of the painter was painting Alexander I have Safarbekova waterfall. The painting depicts the meeting of the Emperor with his sister, which was held in the small Swiss town of Shaffhausen. Since the young artist had never been to Switzerland, when working he had to use prints with views of the Rhine falls in Shaffhausen. The main characters in the film, Alexander I and his sister Catherine Pavlovna, Shchedrin wrote their portraits. After 11 years Shchedrin graduated from the Academy, writing software work he View from Petrovsky island in St. Petersburg, for which he received a gold medal and the right to pensionerstvo overseas. However, in connection with the beginning of the war of 1812 his trip to foreign lands was postponed. The policy work of Sylvester Shchedrin made in the spirit of landscape Seeds Shchedrin. The artist treats the urban landscape as a Park, with an emphasis on its decorative effect. In the foreground he has depicted the trees, the second water space, and in the far put actual specific image. Another landscape View from Petrovsky island on Tuchkov bridge, written in 1815, shows the desire Shchedrin to overcome this system. There is less decoration. The main attention the artist pays to the image. Its the completeness of this has been in the landscape 1817 View on Exchange from the Neva river embankment. He performed with great technical skill and has a firmness and clarity of the lines, the clear location of long-term plans and correct quantities. Shortly before Shchedrin faced new creative challenges that he had to solve already away from home. In 1818, among others, pensioners Sylvester Feodosievich went to Germany. Here the young artist met with the works of the great masters. Graduates of the Academy visited Berlin, Dresden, Vienna, Prague, then went to Italy. If in the XVIII century, the pensioners went abroad to continue their education in the XIX century graduated from the Academy students receive sufficient preparation for independent work. In Italy Shchedrin was in a difficult artistic environment. A strong position here maintained classicism, and yet more significant was the influence of the romantic and realistic tendencies. However, unlike Kiprensky, which is characteristic for individual works of Italian period of artistic power and originality still succumbed to the influence of the dominant trends in art, Shchedrin reacted independently to the creativity around him painters. Sylvester Feodosievich joined advanced romantic-realistic movement. However, he went his own way, failing to keep the works of the identity of Russian national traditions. Shchedrin settled in Rome and started to work on urban landscapes. The object of his big review of the film he decided to make the Colosseum. However, in contrast to adherents of the classic direction of Sylvester Feodosievich Coliseum drew not so much as a monument of ancient architecture, but as an interesting building that he sought to portray real and honest, without idealizing its shape. Prepared in the process of working with nature study, which shows a portrait of the structure, turned into an independent picture. In the foreground of the sketch the artist has depicted the Colosseum from his ruined hand. The building occupies the entire height of the canvas. At home, afar, says only so marked all of its extraordinary value. Trying as best as possible to Express nature, Shchedrin to the smallest details gave the architecture of the building, its stone mass and the clutch. To make the picture more entertaining, it complements the image of the Colosseum, the motif included in it the procession. In 1819, when it was written Colosseum in Rome came the Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich. To provide material support to their fellow artists who stood out not so much living in Rome, he made a number of orders. Prince Shchedrin was asked to write two paintings with views of Naples. In the summer of 1819, the painter went to Naples, where he settled on the quay of Santa Lucia from the poet and diplomat K. N. Batiushkov. Shchedrin wrote the Vesuvius, landscapes with views of the sea and the quays of Naples. Picture Of Naples. On the promenade of the Riviera di Chaya Shchedrin performed in the manner typical of the later painting of F. Alexeyev: the main place on the front, there is a promenade, where the artist has depicted groups of people walking and vendors, which is a unpretentious genre scenes. In the background a view of the sea. In the same style were written in another work - View of Naples, dated 1820 In these works, combining elements of landscape and genre painting, reflected the impressions of the author from the colorful and diverse life of the southern city, which caused him admiration. With a special delight in his letters home he described the embankment, where he lived and where, as on a silver platter, I could see the Vesuvius and the incessant movement of the people walking and the worker. The early works of the artist belonging to the Italian period, is still lacking in skill. They differ in the diversity of colors, because the tendency of Shchedrin to overcome the canons of classicism, with its local color finds expression in the new techniques. He only introduces the motif of the evening light that passes through flood the entire picture of the overall pinkish tone. However, such interest coverage indicates tendency of the painter to romanticism. In addition, in the Neapolitan scenery remains the artist's desire for a thorough picture of nature. In 1821, the artist returned to Rome, where worked in the Studio and outdoors. A series of images of waterfalls in Tivoli, made in 1821-1823, shows how increased artistic skills Shchedrin compared to the study he Coliseum. Image objects (rocks, water, vegetation) became more tangible and close to reality, and color more perfect. Thin and beautiful shades of brown in the reproduction of the rocks blend harmoniously with the greenery and the clear blue of the sky. The picture is imbued with a living experience and human warmth that indicates the influence on the artist of the traditions of romanticism. Shchedrin's landscapes were seen by the General public, from orders there was no release: many connoisseurs of art have the desire to buy beautiful paintings, which the artist skillfully captures the unique charm of South nature. In 1822 Sylvester Feodosievich the painting he Colosseum, which was performed in the traditions of classicism. Portraying the vast space, the artist chose a view from above, sitting with his easel in the attic of the monastery of St. Bonaventure. The composition of the painting includes not only the Roman amphitheatre and the arch of Constantine, but other ancient ruins and afar the construction of the modern city. On the canvas, clearly distinguished three plan: in the centre of the composition are majestic ruins of the Colosseum, on the right is a hill with a tree, and left the ancient buildings, which are surrounded by tall trees. The creation of this large canvas, composed of many parts, it took a lot of time and physical strength. Efforts resulted in well-deserved success: exhibited in the Hermitage, the painting has received critical acclaim. Alive, real, imbued with romantic lyrical perception of nature, which has developed in the process of working on Waterfalls, was developed in the Suite of species New Rome, which Shchedrin had devoted three years, from 1823 to 1825. Among the best works of this series stands out the painting New Rome. The Castle Of The Holy Angel. This landscape depicting a majestic expanse of water of the Tiber, fishing boats, an ancient castle, a modern building from afar, the Cathedral of St. Peter, is imbued with a unique poetic feel. With great sympathy written poor citizens, employed on the river daily Affairs. The picture was further evidence of the keen interest of the artist to the majestic ancient ruins, and to the lives of ordinary Italian people. In addition, the New Rome. The castle of the Holy angel marked the final departure of Shchedrin from the traditions of academic painting. If at the Coliseum of the ancient monuments were depicted against the background of the urban landscape, the Castel Sant'angelo they organically flow into the real and modern look of the city, being an integral part of it. From the paintings disappeared Shchedrin emphasized solenosti the first plan, painterly style was enriched with new features: the space became deeper, as if it was filled with light and air and color have purchased many shades. Enthusiastically embraced paintings from the series New Rome not only Roman, but also the Russian audience. She received many orders. The result Shchedrin had 8-10 times to do the same motives. However, this does not mean that all options were exact copies of each other. Working from life, the artist repeated his creation, each time practicing solving problems of light and air, and thus honing their skills.

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